More Living Law from the 80's
"No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance."
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1980 - U.S. Dept. of Education established Title IX oversight transferred to Office for Civil Rights of the U.S. Dept. of Education ("OCR")
Title IX regulations transferred to 34 CFR Part 106. 45 Fed. Reg. 30955 et seq. (5/9/1980)
July 28, 1980 - Interim Title IX Manual
OCR issued Interim Investigators' Manual re Title IX compliance to investigators in its regional offices.
1982 OCR Guidance for Letters of Findings OCR
OCR Guidance for Letters of Findings OCR issued "Guidance for Writing Title IX Intercollegiate Athletics Letters of Findings" to assist investigators in its regional offices
1982 North Haven Bd. of Ed. v. Bell, 456 U.S. 512 (1982)
U.S. Supreme Court upheld Title IX regulations that prohibited sex discrimination in employment.
1984 Grove City v. Bell, 465 U.S. 555 (1984)
U.S. Supreme Court decision held that federal spending clause statutes only apply to those programs or activities that receive direct federal financial assistance, effectively ending Title IX applicability to athletics.
1986 Civil Rights Remedies Equalization Act Congress passed the Civil Rights Remedies Equalization Act
In response to the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Atascadero State v. Scanlon, which held that the Eleventh Amendment barred suits for monetary damages under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (a law similar to Title IX) against state entities in federal court. The CRREA includes an express waiver of the Eleventh Amendment as a condition for accepting federal funds.
1987 Title IX Grievance Procedures Manual OCR published
"Title IX Grievance Procedures: An Introductory Manual" to assist schools with their obligations under 34 CFR 106.8 regarding the establishment of a Title IX complaint procedure and a Title IX officer to receive those complaints.
1988 Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987
20 U.S.C. 1687 March 22, 1988: Congress passed the Civil Rights Restoration Act over Pres. Ronald Reagan's veto. The act became effective 3/22/1988. It over-rode the Grove City v. Bell decision by expanding the definition of "program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance." Title IX athletics enforcement again possible.
Conforming amendments adopted in 2000. 65 Fed. Reg. 68050 et seq. (Nov. 13, 2000)
More TitleIX Living Law in the 90's >>